But a recent analysis of 2000 data contained in a new paper A new era in the economics of fertility shows the relationship has more recently turned on its head.
“This relationship had reversed – fertility is now highest in countries where many women work,” the authors reveal.
It may still be true that individual nation’s fertility rates are lower compared to history, but it is no longer the case that higher-income countries necessarily have the lowest fertility rates.
Indeed, quite the opposite.
In particular, the data shows that countries which have made it easier for women to combine achieving both their career and family goals have achieved not only higher female workforce participation, but also higher rates of fertility. Jobs and babies. Win-win!
So, what policies really help women to combine both paid work and the generally unpaid labor of making and caring for babies?
The authors identify four factors: family policy, co-operative fathers, favorable social norms and flexible labor markets.
Family policies include paid parental leave and government investments in childcare, with the latter shown to have a direct positive impact not only on women’s workforce participation but also on fertility. Turns out, the choice between kids and careers is not binary at all. Women can have both, with the right support.
“If … childcare is widely available, covers all of the working day, and is affordable, women with young children have an easier time continuing to work and might be more likely to have larger families as a result.”
Secondly, there is a clear fertility boost in countries where men contribute relatively more to childcare and housework.
“In all countries with a fertility rate below 1.5 (ie, a low fertility rate), men do less than a third of the work in the home.” By comparison, men in the most fertile OECD nations – Switzerland, Iceland, Finland and Norway – do between 35 and 40 per cent of the housework.
That’s far from equal, of course, but enough to translate into more babies. (For the record, Aussie men do about 27 per cent of the housework.)
Favorable social norms include both general positive attitudes about women combining work and family, along with workplaces which discourage excessively long or unsociable hours and which support parents to work flexibly.
Finally, the general state of the jobs market and the availability of well-paid and flexible jobs for women to return to after birth also heavily influences fertility decisions.
Helping women to combine work and family in these ways provides a direct antidote to declining rates of fertility in advanced nations, the authors conclude.
“The clear cross-country association of fertility rates with measures of family-career compatibility shows that ultra-low fertility is not an inescapable fate, but a reflection of the policies, institutions, and norms prevalent in a society.”
Of course, the decision to have a child should always be an active choice for women. And the success of some countries in finding policy settings which both boost women’s paid work and fertility suggests a potential unmet demand in women to do more of both.
Turns out women, on average, just want what men have had for many years: the opportunity to combine a rewarding career with a happy family life.
Policies which support them to do both, including higher investment in childcare, end up paying a double budget dividend, both by boosting the proportion of tax-paying women and in generating more future taxpayers, otherwise known as babies.
Women really do want to have it all. And it’s in society’s broader interests that their needs are met.
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